Extensively employed in industries and construction sites, casting also known as foundering is the process whereby a liquid is poured into a mould which is basically a hollow cavity of a desired shape. The liquid solidifies inside into the desired shape which is then removed or broken out of the mould to complete the process and employed to work. Casting is basically a simpler and easier route to create difficult shapes in construction and industries which otherwise would be a lot more difficult to make through other rather traditional methods making the process economical, easy to use and accessible to many.
Casting process can be divided into subcategories either based on the type of mould used such as sand or metal or by pouring method such as gravity, vacuum or low pressure method. Based on various reasons, casting process has almost replaced other typical methods of moulding. One of the many advantages of casting is the ability to create complex yet small shapes in practically any type of material. Being the cheapest and most economical method available, casting can be employed to create any size of shapes as heavy as 200 tonnes!
Construction processes have continued to evolve into a lot more sophisticated methods ever since technology overshadowed every little act of human life. Gunning machines is one such bespoken and brilliant example of exceptional technology and usefulness brought together. Incorporating proven technology and latest designs, companies have built gunning machines that allow engineers and construction workers to carry out their duties efficiently all day and night, through the year. The designs have evolved a lot offering simple handling and function with minimum maintenance required.
Gunning machines are extensively employed in steel and iron industry where they are utilized to repair refractory lining. Maintenance work done using gunning machines is best suited in industries and plants that do not require extensive large-scale repair work but quick small maintenance in several parts of the plant are needed to be done. What makes gunning machines appropriate for speedy refurbishing processes is the ease with which the apparatus can be set up and materials can be mounted. Besides the materials ejected from the machine tend to dry out a lot faster than many other traditional methods avoiding the risks of any possible explosions making gunning machines one of the best method of choice for repair work in industries.
As per the basic lesson in science, all materials flexible or not are prone to changes in their physical appearance with changes in the surroundings temperature. Concrete belongs to the non-flexible category of materials and hence it does not bend or stretch without changes to its physical appearance. While concrete’s strength and hardness comes as a useful characteristic most of the times it may also pose serious risks to the life and reliability of concrete structures (buildings, bridges, dams etc) when affected by environmental changes. It expands and contracts with the increase or decrease in temperatures and if suitable measures are not made to cope with this phenomenon, these changes may cause cracks to occur and slight shifts in structural elements.
Expansion Joints Save The Day!
To prevent the harmful effects of temperature on concrete expansion joints are incorporated in the construction of concrete structures such as between sections of bridges, walls and roofs, paving slabs, railway tracks and piping systems. Flexural stresses in concrete structures are produced due to the vertical movements of adjoining rigid foundation components such as if a slab is places between two structures an expansion joint is essential to keep the structures together. The main function of these expansion joints is to absorb these stresses and permit thermal contraction and expansion without inducing stress into the structural elements and causing a serious damage. Besides the function of preventing concrete structures from thermal expansion and contraction, expansion joints also absorb vibrations and permit soil movements due to earthquakes or ground settlement.
So how exactly are expansion joints helpful in the construction of bridges?
The bridges made of concrete are prone to thermal changes just like any other concrete structure and hence need modifications in structural elements to cope with those changes and prevent any serious damage to bridges. Concrete bridges expand and contract slightly not only due to thermal changes but due to shrinkage of concrete, ground settlement, ice and even due to weight of vehicles. To cope with all these environmental factors, bridge engineers incorporate expansion joints between various sections of bridge.
Expansion joints must be carefully designed and installed into the concrete structures to get maximum benefits. These joints are placed at equal intervals in the structure to ensure uniformity throughout the structure and to allow the joints to absorb environmental changes homogeneously. Bridge engineers carefully embed and install expansion joints into the concrete structure and make the transition smooth, however if an asphalt rubber is placed on the bridge, the engineers need to leave a little room for expansion joints. In which case, the drivers may experience a little bump while passing over that area.
Petroleum engineering is one of the most coveted fields of engineering with attractive job perks, opportunities to grow, handsome pay and chances to travel around the world. Petroleum engineers are highly educated, trained and specialized people in their field and work primarily for oil and gas companies, mining and petroleum and coal products manufacturing industries in countries dominated with petroleum resources. Their main job is to locate oil resources and supervise their extraction through various technological methods such as injecting chemicals, water or steam into the earth. Besides supervising extraction teams, their job also involves research and to improve the petroleum extraction techniques employing latest technology.
Petroleum engineers’ jobs are extremely difficult, there would be times when they have to work for hours without breaks locked up in their offices and other times they would have to work for hours under the scorching sun overseeing field work and extraction teams. While this life might be ideal for a loner it might not be best suited to a people’s person or a family man. Besides these challenging work conditions, petroleum engineers enjoy a number of rewards and advantages.
The countries rich in oil and petroleum resources are some of the richest nations in the world because their economies are extremely dependent upon the extraction of those natural resources. Since only a small percentage of the necessary petroleum products flow out of the earth due to natural forces, petroleum engineers help with the extraction in an efficient and cost-effective manner employing various techniques ensuring minimum loss of these assets making their knowledge, skills and experience extremely valuable to the oil and gas companies.
For a job as demanding and challenging as petroleum engineer’s comes with a lot of perks and an obviously attractive pay. When the demand and stakes are high the pays are high as well and this is the most obvious advantage of being a petroleum engineer. As per the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, petroleum engineers reported an average salary of $138,980 per year in 2011 which is significantly higher than any other type of engineering. Petroleum engineers are among the very few professionals who have the chance to secure a high paying job right out of the college. And not only this, the job promises continuous raise in income as well.
Job Security & Growth
A Bachelor’s in Petroleum engineering is not offered all over the world making the degree special and since there aren’t a lot of people graduating with the degree the job prospects for the ones who do are high. Besides working for private or government Oil and Gas Companies petroleum engineers also find work in mining industry and petroleum manufacturing industries. Bear in mind though that petroleum engineering jobs may require relocation and that is one of the reasons these are categorized among jobs with high pays and amazing future opportunities.